DigiActive's Quick Guide to Secure Communication


UPDATE:  Version 5.0 is now available in .doc form (click here to download).
Patrick Meier, DigiActive’s director of applied research, has created a very thorough list of ways to stay safe and protect your data while taking part in digital activism in repressive countries. We have reproduced Patrick’s list of tactics and technologies below and we encourage you to read his original post on his blog iRevolution to learn more about his conceptual framing of these issues as well as to read the useful feedback in the comments section.  For more in-depth information on digital security for activists, check out Tactical Tech’s Security in-a-box.
Since this is quite a long list,  here is a table of contents.  The list below (which continues after the jump) contains both tactics and technologies for keeping safe while using the following devices and applications:

Mobile Phones
Digital Cameras
Computers/Laptops
Flash Disks
E-mail
Browsers and Web Sites
VoIP (online telephony)
Blogs and Social Networking Sites
File Sharing
Cyber Cafes

Security Tactics

Mobile Phones

Purchase your mobile phone far from where you live. Buy lower-end, simple phones that do not allow third-party applications to be installed. Higher-end ones with more functionalities carry more risk. Use cash to purchase your phone and SIM card. Avoid town centers and find small or second-hand shops as these are unlikely to have security cameras. Do not give your real details if asked; many shops do not ask for proof of ID.


Use multiple SIM cards and multiple phones and only use pay-as-you go options; they are more expensive but required for anonymity.
Remove the batteries from your phone if you do not want to be geo-located and keep the SIM card out of the phone when not in use and store in separate places.Use your phone while in a moving vehicle to reduces probability of geo-location.
Never say anything that may incriminate you in any way.
Use code.


Use Beeping instead of SMS whenever possible. Standard text messages are visible to the network operator, including location, phone and SIM card identifiers. According to this recent paper, the Chinese government has established 2,800 SMS surveillance centers around the country to monitor and censor text messages. The Chinese firm Venus Info Tech Ltd sells real-time content monitoring and filtering for SMS.
Use fake names for your address book and memorize the more important numbers. Frequently delete your text messages and call history and replace them with random text messages and calls. The data on your phone is only deleted if it is written over with new data. This means that deleted SMS and contact numbers can sometimes be retrieved (with a free tool like unDeleteSMS. Check your phone’s settings to see whether it can be set to not store sent texts messages and calls.
Eavesdropping in mobile phone conversations is technically complicated although entirely possible using commercially available technology. Do not take mobile phones with you to meetings as they can be turned into potential listening/tracking devices. Network operators can remotely activate a phone as a recording device regardless of whether someone is using the phone or whether the phen is even switched on. This functionality is available on US networks.
Network operators can also access messages or contact information stored on the SIM card. If surveillance takes place with the co-operation of the operator, little can be done to prevent the spying.
Mobile viruses tend to spread easily via Bluetooth so the latter should be turned off when not in use.
Using open Bluetooth on phones in group situations, e.g., to share pictures, etc., can be dangerous. At the same time, it is difficult to incriminate any one person and a good way to share information when the cell phone network and Internet are down.
Discard phones that have been tracked and burn them; it is not sufficient to simply destroy the SIM card and re-use the phone.


Digital Cameras

Keep the number of sensitive pictures on your camera to a minimum.
Add plenty of random non-threatening pictures (not of individuals) and have these safe pictures locked so when you do a “delete all” these pictures stay on the card.
Keep the battery out of the camera when not in use so it can’t be turned on by others.
Practice taking pictures without having to look at the view screen.

 


Computers/Laptops

Use passphrases for all your sensitive data.
Keep your most sensitive files on flash disks and find safe places to hide them.
Have a contingency plan to physically destroy or get rid of your computer at short notice.

 


Flash disks

Purchase flash disks that don’t look like flash disks.
Keep flash disks hidden.

 


Email communication

Use code.
Use passphrases instead of passwords and change them regularly. Use letters, numbers and other characters to make them “c0mpLeX!”. Do not use personal information and changer your passphrases each month. Do not use the same password for multiple sites.
Never use real names for email addresses and use multiple addresses.
Discard older email accounts on a regular basis and create new ones.
Know the security, safety and privacy policies of providers and monitor any chances (see terms of service tracker).

 


Browsers and websites

Turn off java and other potentially malicious add-ons.
Learn IP addresses of visited websites so that history shows only numbers and not names.
When browsing on a public computer, delete your private data (search history, passwords, etc.) before you leave.
When signing up for an account where you will be publishing sensitive media, do not use your personal email address and don’t give personal information.
Don’t download any software from pop-ups,  they may be malicious and attack your computer or record your actions online.
Do not be logged in to any sensitive site while having another site open.

 


VoIP

Just because your talking online doesn’t mean you are not under surveillance.
As with a cell or landline, use code do not give salient details about your activities, and do not make incriminating statements.
Remember that your online activities can be surveilled using offline techniques.  It doesn’t matter if you are using encrypted VOIP at a cyber cafe if the person next to you is an under-cover police officer.
When possible, do not make sensitive VOIP calls in a cyber cafe.  It is simply too easy for someone to overhear you. If you must, use code that doesn’t stand out.

 


Blogs and social networking sites

Know the laws in your country pertaining to liability, libel, etc.
When signing up for a blog account where you will be publishing sensitive content, do not use you personal email address or information.
In your blog posts and profile page, do not post pictures of yourself or your friends, do not use your real name, and do not give personal details that could help identify you (town, school, employer, etc.).
Blog platforms like wordpress allow uses to automatically publish a post on a designated date and time. Use this functionality to auto-publish on a different day when you are away from the computer.
On social networks, create one account for activism under a false but real-sounding name (so your account won’t be deleted) but don’t tell your friends about it.  The last thing you want is a friend writing on your wall or tagging you in a photo and giving away your identity.
Even if you delete your account on a social networking site, your data will remain, so be very careful about taking part in political actions (i.e., joining sensitive groups) online.
Never join a sensitive group with your real account.  Use your fake account to join activism groups. (The fake account should not be linked to your fake email).
Don’t use paid services.  Your credit card can be linked back to you.

 


File sharing

Use a shared Gmail account with a common passphrase and simply save emails instead of sending. Change passphrase monthly.
For sharing offline, do not label storage devices (CDs, flash drives) with the true content.  If you burn a CD with an illegal video or piece of software on it, write an album label on it.
Don’t leave storage devices in places where they would be easily found if your office or home were searched (i.e., on a table, in a desk drawer).
Keep copies of your data on two flash drives and keep them hidden in separate locations.
When thinking of safe locations, consider who else has access. Heavily-traveled locations are less safe.
Don’t travel with sensitive data on you unless absolutely necessary.  If you need to, make sure to hide it on your person or “camouflage” it (label a data CD as a pop music CD). See Sneakernet.

 


Internet Cafes

Assume you are being watched.
Assume computers at cyber cafes are tracking key strokes and capturing screenshots.
Avoid cyber cafes without an easy exit and have a contingency plan if you need to leave rapidly.

 

Security Technologies

Mobile phones

Use CryptoSMS, SMS 007 or Kryptext to text securely (this requires java-based phones).
Use Android Guardian as soon as it becomes available.
Access mobile versions of websites as they are usually not blocked. In addition, connecting to mobile websites provides for faster connections.

 


Digital cameras

Use scrubbing software such as: JPEG stripper to remove the metadata (Exif data) from your pictures before you upload/email.
Have a safe Secure Digital Card (SD) that you can swap in. Preferably, use a mini SD card with a mini SD-SD converter. Then place the mini SD into a compatible phone for safekeeping.

 


Computers/Laptops

Use an effective anti-virus program and ensure it updates itself online at least once a day: TMIS, McAfee, Symantec/Norton, AVG, Avira, NOD32, Kaspersky.
Do not use illegal, cracked, hacked, pwned, warez software.
Keep your software programs (operating systems, productivity suites, browsers) up-to-date with the latest software updates.
Use software to encrypt your hard drive: Bitlocker, TrueCrypt, PGP Whole Disk Encryption, Check Point, Dekart Private Disk.


Use a different file type to hide your sensitive files. For example, the .mov file extension will make a large file look like a movie.
Mac users can use Little Snitch to track all the data that goes into and out of your computer.
From a technical perspective, there’s no such thing as the delete function. Your deleted data is eventually written over with new data. There are two common ways to wipe sensitive data from your hard drive or storage device. You can wipe a single file or you can wipe all of the ‘unallocated’ space on the drive. Eraser is a free and open-source secure deletion tool that is extremely easy to use.

 


Flash disks

StealthySurfer USB Flash Drive
The secure browsing Tor software can be installed on flash disk.
Using a USB watch calls less attention as do the USB ear rings and this credit card USB flash disk.

 


Email communication

Use https when using Gmail.
Use encrypted email platforms such as Hushmail and RiseUp.

 


Browsers and websites

Use Firefox and get certain plugins to follow website tracking such as ghostery and adblock, adart to remove ads/trackers.
User Tor software or Psiphon to browse privately and securely.
I shan’t list access points for secure browsers, Proxy servers and VPNs here. Please email me for a list.
Always use https in “Settings/General/Browser Connection.”

 


VoIP

Use Skype but not TOM Skype (Chinese version). Note that Skype is not necessarily 100% secure since no one has access to the source code to verify.
Off The Record (OTR) is a good encryption plugin. For example, use Pidgin with OTR (you need to add the plug-in yourself).
Gizmo offer encryption for voice conversations, and then only if you are calling another VoIP user, as opposed to a mobile or landline telephone. However, because neither application is open-source, independent experts have been unable to test them fully and ensure that they are secure.
Adium is a free IM application for Macs with built-in OTR encryption that integrates most other IM applications.

 


Blogs and social networking platforms

There are no safe social networks.  The best way to be safe on a social network is fake account and a proxy server.
The anonymous blogging platform Invisiblog no longer exists, so the best bet now is WordPress + Proxy (preferably Tor) + anonymity of content.
Log out of facebook.com when not using the site.

 


File sharing

Use Drop.io to create a private, secure media sharing site.
Use BasecampHQ with secure/SSL option to create more specific usernames and passwords for each user or remote site.

 


Internet Cafe

Tor can be installed on flash disk and used at Internet cafe and also used from LiveCDs if flash drives are not allowed.

 


Other potential tech

LiveScribe (see explanation here).
FreedomFone

 

image: amelungc/Flickr


"Wake Up, Humans!"

Sixty years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was signed, human rights are still under attack. Amnesty International Belgium took a very interactive approach to raise awareness and inspire action among Belgians.


Protesters Gather on 20th Anniversary of Tiananmen Square Massacre

“Five thousand Hong Kong demonstrators asked the Chinese Communist Party to readdress the Tiananmen Square Massacre.

Twenty years ago, on June 4th, the Chinese regime’s army marched through the square.  Although it has never been officially confirmed, it is believed that thousands of demonstrators were killed. The protestors were demanding democratic reform and an end to official corruption.”


Hope Phones: Old cell phones breath new life for mHealth

FrontlineSMS:Medic today launched http://www.HopePhones.org and Hope Phones, a US-wide mobile phone collection campaign supporting mHealth programs at medical clinics in over 30 countries. The campaign will make use of old cell phones in the US to provide phones for clinics and healthcare workers in the developing world. Cell phones are valuable tools in the battle to reduce disease and illness. The field of mHealth - the provision and coordination of health-related services via mobile communications - is blossoming in response to a global shortage of healthcare workers and the demonstrated impact made by simple, mobile tools. Hope Phones will make use of the nearly 450,000 cell phones discarded every day in the US. HopePhones.org allows donors to print a free shipping label and send their old phone in to The Wireless Source, a global leader in wireless device recycling. The phone’s value allows FrontlineSMS:Medic to purchase usable, recycled cell phones for healthcare workers. 

Simple ways to help:

1. Visit http://www.HopePhones.org and donate your old phones.
2. Spread the word!
* Email your friends, family, classmates and coworkers.
* Post on Facebook and become a fan of the Hope Phones page.
* Tell the world on Twitter - use #HopePhones as a tag.
3. Contact if you’d like to help set up a Hope Phones collection center.


Half the workers of the world work without formal contracts or social security

1.8 billion people, or more than half of the global labour force are working without a formal labour contract and social security. That number is projected to grow to two thirds of the workforce by 2020, assuming stable population trends and growth patterns, and could go higher if more jobs are lost to the economic crisis and more migrants return home to informal sector jobs.

Informal economic activity, excluding the agricultural sector, accounts for three-quarters of jobs in Sub-Saharan Africa, more than two-thirds in South and Southeast Asia, half in Latin America, the Middle East and North Africa, and nearly one-quarter in transition countries. If agriculture is included, the informal share of the economy in each region is even higher (e.g., more than 90% in South Asia).

The share of informal employment tends to increase during economic turmoil. For example, during the Argentine economic crisis (1999-2002), the country’s economy shrank by almost one-fifth, while the share of informal employment expanded from 48% to 52%.

The numbers come from “Is Informal Normal,” a Paris-based think tank on democracy and the market economy.


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